DNA vs Epigenetic's 101: Understanding The Roles DNA and Epigenetics to Unlock Personalised Health Plans

DNA Testing
Epigenetic Testing
DNA vs Epigenetic's 101: Understanding The Roles DNA and Epigenetics to Unlock Personalised Health Plans


  1. Introduction
  2. DNA Explained
  3. Epigenetics Explained
  4. Personalised Health Plans
  5. Nutrition
  6. Exercise
  7. Conclusion

In 30 seconds...Ready to transform your health? Dive into the world of DNA and epigenetics to discover why diets and workouts yield different results for everyone. Learn how your genetic makeup influences not just your metabolism, but also your risk of injury. Get personalized nutrition plans that are tailored just for you, ditching the one-size-fits-all approach. Opt for fitness programs that leverage your genetic strengths and weaknesses, making every workout count. And here's the kicker—your lifestyle choices today can even impact the health of future generations. So why be average when you can be extraordinary?


Have you ever wondered why some people can wolf down an entire pizza without gaining a pound, while others simply look at a dessert and gain weight? Or why some individuals can run a marathon with ease, while others huff and puff just walking up a flight of stairs? The answer lies in our DNA and epigenetics, which together hold the keys to unlocking our personalised health potential.

Everyone has the potential to be the healthiest and happiest version of themselves but getting there can feel like shooting in the dark at times. One recent but massive leap forward in healthcare is being able to understand your unique genetic makeup and epigenetics. Now we have DNA Health Test and DNA + Epigenetic Health Test at our disposal, designed to help you seamlessly but effectively take control of your health by making informed choices about your nutrition, fitness, and overall well-being. So first, lets touch up on what DNA & Epigenetics are, why they are important & how to go about learning about ones genetics. Its easier than you might think…

It's All in the Genes: DNA & Epigenetics Explained

The Genetic Building Blocks: DNA

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material that contains the blueprint for life. Think of it as the instruction manual for building and maintaining your body. Each one of your cells contains a complete copy of your DNA, which is organized into units called genes. These genes are housed within structures called chromosomes, and humans typically have 46 chromosomes in each cell, with 23 inherited from each parent.

The Double Helix: DNA's Unique Structure

The DNA molecule is composed of two long, twisted strands that form a characteristic double helix structure. Each strand is made up of smaller units called nucleotides, which contain one of four bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). These bases pair up in a specific manner – A with T, and C with G – to form the rungs of the DNA ladder.

Genes: The Recipes for Life

The unique sequence of these base pairs encodes the information needed to create the proteins that your body requires to function. It's like a secret code that determines everything.

Genes are segments of DNA that serve as the recipes for all the proteins your body needs to function. Proteins are essential components of your body, playing critical roles in cellular structure, function, and regulation.

Each gene contains a specific sequence of DNA base pairs that provides the instructions for building a particular protein. Your body's cells then use these proteins to carry out various tasks, such as breaking down food, transporting oxygen, or fighting off infections.

Your genes determine your traits, such as eye colour, hair type, height, and even your predisposition to certain diseases. It's estimated that humans have around 20,000 to 25,000 protein-coding genes, which make up only about 1-2% of the entire human genome. The remaining DNA, once considered "junk DNA," is now known to have various regulatory functions that contribute to the overall complexity of the human body.

Genetic Variation: The Spice of Life

While all humans share about 99.9% of their DNA, it's the remaining 0.1% that makes each of us unique. This genetic variation is responsible for the incredible diversity we see among individuals – from physical appearance to susceptibility to certain diseases.

Variations in DNA can occur in many forms, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are changes in a single base pair, or larger structural variations like insertions, deletions, or duplications of DNA segments. These genetic variations can influence how genes are expressed and, ultimately, how your body functions.

Beyond DNA: The World of Epigenetics

Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression that don't involve alterations to the underlying DNA sequence. To better understand this concept, imagine your genetic instruction manual (DNA) being read by an editor (epigenetics). The editor can't change the words (your DNA sequence), but it can change how they're read, affecting how your genes are expressed.

The Impact of Epigenetics on Health and Well-being

Epigenetic changes can have a significant impact on your health and well-being. They play a crucial role in a wide range of biological processes, from embryonic development to aging. Epigenetic factors can switch genes on or off, or even fine-tune their activity levels. Abnormal epigenetic modifications have been linked to various diseases and conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders.

It's important to note that your epigenetic profile isn't static; it can change throughout your life in response to environmental and lifestyle factors. Factors such as diet, exercise, stress, and exposure to toxins can all influence your epigenetic marks. For example, a diet rich in certain nutrients, like folate and vitamin B12, can affect DNA methylation patterns, while regular exercise has been shown to induce changes in histone modifications that may promote brain health.

The Inheritance of Epigenetic Changes

In some cases, epigenetic changes can be passed down from one generation to the next. This phenomenon, known as epigenetic inheritance, can result in the transmission of traits and health risks to offspring without any change in the actual DNA sequence. Patterns of DNA methylation can change over time due to environmental and lifestyle factors like diet, stress, and exposure to toxins. These changes can either accelerate or decelerate the aging process, making you biologically older or younger than your chronological age.

What is Biological Age?

Biological age is a measure of an individual's physiological and cellular condition relative to their chronological age. While chronological age is simply the number of years you've been alive, biological age provides a more accurate picture of your overall health and aging process. It takes into account various factors like telomere length, DNA methylation patterns, and other biomarkers that can indicate the state of your cells and tissues.

Reversing Biological Age

While the idea of reversing biological age might sound like science fiction, emerging research suggests that it may be possible through targeted epigenetic interventions. Here are some ways that are being explored:

  • Diet and Nutrition: Consuming a diet rich in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory foods can potentially reverse signs of aging at the cellular level.
  • Exercise: Regular physical activity has been shown to positively affect telomere length and improve cellular health, thereby potentially reducing biological age.
  • Stress Management: Practices like meditation and mindfulness can reduce stress hormones, which have been linked to accelerated aging.
  • Pharmaceutical Interventions: Drugs that target specific aging pathways are being researched. For example, drugs like rapamycin and metformin are under study for their potential anti-aging effects.
  • Epigenetic Reprogramming: This is a more advanced and experimental approach that involves directly altering the epigenetic marks on genes associated with aging. While still in the research phase, it holds promise for reversing biological age.

Research in this area is still in its early stages, but it's becoming increasingly clear that the choices we make and the environments we live in can have long-lasting consequences not only for our own health but also for the health of future generations. Mind. Blown.

The Dynamic Duo: How DNA and Epigenetics Shape Your Health

While your DNA provides the basic blueprint for your body, it's your epigenetics that determines how your genes are expressed. It's a dynamic dance between nature and nurture, with both your genetic makeup and your environment playing crucial roles in shaping who you are and how healthy you can be.

By understanding the interplay between your DNA and epigenetics, you can unlock the full potential of personalized health.

A Health Plan as Unique as You: The Power of Personalized Health

Imagine having a health plan tailored specifically to your unique genetic makeup and epigenetic profile. A plan that considers your individual strengths and weaknesses, your nutritional needs, and your optimal exercise routine. That's the power of personalised health.

Heres where we fly in saying “ohhh yeah”. We harness cutting-edge science and technology to help you unlock the secrets hidden within your genes and epigenetics, empowering you to make informed choices about your health, nutrition, and fitness. Here's how it works:

Nutritional Nirvana: Personalized Nutrition Plans

Have you ever tried a diet that worked wonders for a friend but did nothing for you? That's because there's no one-size-fits-all approach to nutrition. Your genetic and epigenetic profiles play a crucial role in how your body processes nutrients, your metabolism, and even your food sensitivities.

With personalised nutrition plans based on your unique genetic and epigenetic information, you can finally say goodbye to the trial-and-error approach to dieting. Instead, you'll enjoy a tailored meal plan designed to optimize your health and well-being. Say hello to nutrient-dense foods that work best for your body and wave goodbye to those that might be secretly sabotaging your health.

For example, some people have a genetic predisposition to metabolize fats more efficiently, while others may be more adept at processing carbohydrates. Similarly, epigenetic factors can influence these metabolic pathways, either amplifying or mitigating the genetic predispositions.

Example: The APOE Gene and Diet

One well-studied gene related to diet and health is the APOE gene, which comes in several variants: APOE2, APOE3, and APOE4. This gene plays a role in lipid metabolism and can influence your cholesterol levels and cardiovascular health.

  • APOE2: Generally associated with lower levels of LDL cholesterol but may increase the risk of developing type III hyperlipoproteinemia, a rare disorder that elevates certain types of fats in the blood.
  • APOE3: Considered the "neutral" variant, not particularly associated with an increased risk of heart disease.
  • APOE4: Associated with higher levels of LDL cholesterol and a greater risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and Alzheimer's disease.

Dietary Recommendations Based on APOE Variants

For APOE2 Carriers:

  • Diet: A diet low in saturated fats and high in omega-3 fatty acids.
  • Foods to Include: Fatty fish like salmon, flaxseeds, walnuts, and olive oil.
  • Foods to Avoid: Red meat, full-fat dairy, and processed foods high in saturated fats.

For APOE3 Carriers:

  • Diet: A balanced diet that includes a mix of healthy fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  • Foods to Include: Lean meats, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.
  • Foods to Avoid: Highly processed foods and excessive amounts of saturated fats.
  • For APOE4 Carriers:
  • Diet: A diet low in saturated fats and high in antioxidants.
  • Foods to Include: Berries, leafy green vegetables, nuts, and legumes.
  • Foods to Avoid: Red meat, fried foods, and sugary beverages.

Fitness That Fits: Customised Exercise Programs

If you've ever wondered why some people excel at certain sports while others struggle, look no further than their genetic makeup. Your DNA influences your muscle composition, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and even injury risk.

By understanding your genetic predispositions, you can develop a personalized fitness program that's tailored to your strengths and weaknesses. No more wasting time on workouts that don't deliver results. Instead, you'll be on the fast track to peak physical performance and a healthier, happier you.

The Role of the COL1A1 Gene in Injury Risk

The COL1A1 gene encodes for type I collagen, a crucial component of tendons and ligaments. Variants of this gene, particularly the TT variant of the Sp1 polymorphism, have been associated with a higher risk of tendon and ligament injuries. Knowing your COL1A1 gene status can be instrumental in tailoring a fitness program that minimises injury risk while maximising performance.

What the COL1A1 Gene Variants Mean for You

  • GG or GT Variant: Individuals with these variants are generally considered to have a standard risk of tendon and ligament injuries. They can usually follow a balanced training program without needing to take special precautions.
  • TT Variant: Individuals with this variant have a higher risk of experiencing soft tissue injuries like tendon and ligament ruptures. Special attention should be given to injury prevention in their training programs.

Training Recommendations Based on COL1A1 Variants

For GG or GT Carriers:

  • Type of Training: A balanced training program that includes strength, flexibility, and aerobic exercises.
  • Exercises to Include: Squats, lunges, running, swimming, and stretching.
  • Additional Tips: While the risk is considered standard, incorporating a warm-up and cool-down routine can help in injury prevention.
  • For TT Carriers:
  • Type of Training: Emphasis on injury prevention and strengthening of tendons and ligaments.
  • Exercises to Include: Eccentric exercises like Nordic hamstring curls, proprioceptive exercises like balance training, and targeted stretching and mobility work.

Additional Tips:

  • Avoid overloading tendons and ligaments with heavy weights or high-impact activities.
  • Consider incorporating low-impact aerobic exercises like swimming or cycling to reduce stress on tendons and ligaments.
  • Regular physiotherapy check-ups may be beneficial for early detection of potential issues.

Disease Prevention and Management: Knowledge Is Power

Certain genetic variations can increase your risk of developing specific health conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or certain types of cancer. By identifying these potential risk factors through DNA and epigenetic testing, you can take proactive steps to prevent or manage these conditions.

Armed with this knowledge, you can work with your healthcare team to develop a personalized health plan that includes targeted lifestyle interventions, regular screenings, and, if necessary, appropriate medical treatments.

The Perfect Harmony: Balancing Genetics, Lifestyle, and Environment

Your genetic makeup isn't the only factor that influences your health. Environmental factors and lifestyle choices, such as sleep, stress management, and overall wellness, can also play a crucial role.

By understanding how your genetic makeup interacts with your environment and lifestyle, you can develop strategies to optimize your well-being. For instance, if you're genetically predisposed to stress, you might prioritize stress-reduction techniques like meditation or yoga. Or, if you have a genetic tendency toward poor sleep, you can make adjustments to your sleep environment and habits to ensure a restful night.


There you have it: a whirlwind tour of the fascinating world of DNA, epigenetics, and personalised health. By understanding the intricate dance between your genes and your environment, you can unlock your full health potential and live your best life.

At KOKORA, we're passionate about helping you discover the power of personalized health. Our DNA Health Test and DNA + Epigenetic Health Test are designed to provide you with the knowledge and tools you need to make informed choices about your nutrition, fitness, and overall well-being.

So, why not take the plunge and embark on your unique health journey today? After all, as the saying goes, "A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step." And in this case, that step is understanding the power of your DNA and epigenetics for optimal wellness.